%************* PHY 5846 Syllabus Fall 1998 ***************8
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\centerline {{\bf PHYSICS 5846: INTRODUCTION TO EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
\hfill FALL 1998}}
\bigskip
\subsection*{Purpose of course:}
\bigskip
This course is intended to give an introduction to some of the most important
techniques of contemporary experimental physics and provide examples of how they
are used in a variety of modern applications.
Your knowledge and understanding of these techniques will be further developed
and tested via a sequence of homework and laboratory exercises.
\subsection*{Textbook:}
There is no textbook for this course. Lecturers will provide lecture notes which
will be handed out to students.
%medskip
\subsection*{Class Meetings}
As a rule, class meets Tuesday and Thursday 10:00 to 11:15 in UPL 107. In some
cases, time and place will be different.
Class periods are used for lectures, to show experimental demonstrations,
and to do laboratory exercises.
Changes in schedule, place, etc. will be announced by e-mail and on the World
Wide Web (the course homepage is
\verb+http://www.hep.fsu.edu/~wahl/phy5846/fal98/index.html+.)
\subsection*{Course organization}
The course will be team-taught by seven lecturers
(Z. Fisk, J.D. Fox, D. Lind, H.B. Prosper, E. Myers, S.v.Moln\'ar, H.D. Wahl
= contact person for the course), and
will consist of lectures of more or less independent topics that
cover major areas relevant in modern experimental physics. The topics
covered are governed by the field of interest and expertise of the lecturers
that volunteered to contribute to this course.
Most of the lectures are augmented by homework, laboratory exercises
or demonstrations. In addition, every student has to give one presentation
(during the last week of classes) and submit a paper about that same
subject. The topics for these papers can be chosen by the students, but are
subject to the constraint that the variety of topics should somehow reflect
the breadth of topics covered in the course. Approval of the chosen topic
by the course convener (HDW) is therefore required.
In a course like this with many different subjects covered by different
lecturers, course continuity and coherence can be a problem. Also, in many cases
the time alloted to each topic will be too short to allow a full treatment.
To alleviate these problems as far as possible, each lecturer will prepare
and distribute lecture notes which will at least indicate what are the major points
covered in the lectures and what the students are expected to have learned about them.
The lecture notes will also include references to sources of further information.
It is hoped that these lecture notes will be a useful resource for you.
\subsection*{Topics covered in course:}
Here is a preliminary list of topics; the list is possibly incomplete and subject to modifications.
The order is arbitrary and does not reflect priority or order in the course.
\begin{itemize}
\item {\bf sample preparation} (Zachary Fisk)\\
\item {\bf neutron spallation source and radioactive ion beam} (John Fox)\\
In general terms, the lectures would deal with the science, technology,
and problems associated with the Spallation Neutron Source being planned
at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This facility will be used mostly for
materials science research and applications.
A tie-in proposal is now being developed by the Oak Ridge nuclear
physicists to use a portion of the 1 GeV proton SNS beam as a driver
for a radioactive ion beam facility (ISOL - Isotope Separator On Line.)
Many aspects of nuclear and materials science are touched by the two
projects and the discussion might be interesting to a broad group of
students with physics interests. Most nuclear physicists as well
as materials science students are unfamiliar with neutron science and only
a subset of nuclear physicists know much about ISOL matters.
Topics will include:\\
\tab - Considerations leading to the SNS\\
\tab - Types of work to be done at SNS\\
\tab - Justification for ISOL - how it will work\\
\tab - How to piggy-back ISOL onto SNS\\
\tab - Problems associated with spallation/fission
radioactive ion beam sources
\item {\bf Crystallography and methods of
determining crystal structure} (David Lind), \\
including a survey of diffraction based
probes (electron diffraction, helium atom diffraction, x-ray diffraction,
and neutron diffraction) and microscopy methods (including conventional
light microscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and the various scanning probe microscopies
such as STM, AFM, NFOM, and MFM, etc.)\\
There will be demonstrations of the several
examples of these experimental tools that we have here at FSU, and
at least one full blown "lab experiment" that the students will have
to do for credit involving one of the probes (probably (x-ray diffraction).
There will also be several homework problems
based on this area.
\item
{\bf Introduction to lasers and electro-optics}(Ed Myers)\\
to provide a basic understanding of laser operation, and
briefly survey some important laser systems and electro-optical
methods.\\
Topics:\\
\tab Gaussian beams\\
\tab Optical resonators\\
\tab Interaction of radiation and atomic systems\\
\tab Gain coefficient\\
\tab Conditions for laser oscillation\\
\tab Saturation characteristics and power output\\
\tab Specific systems: Gas, dye, solid state, semiconductor\\
\tab Frequency stabilization of single mode lasers\\
\tab Electro-optic and acousto-optic modulation\\
\tab Q-switching and mode-locking\\
\tab Harmonic generation and parametric amplification
There will be a lab. demonstration and a homework assignment.
\item {\bf Beam sources} (Ed Myers)
\begin{itemize}
\item
General concepts:\\
\tab Emittance and brightness\\
\tab Effects of space charge in charged particle sources\\
\tab Problems of extraction\\
\item Survey of beam sources and some applications:\\
\tab positive ion sources,\\
\tab negative ion sources\\
\tab atomic/molecular beam sources
\end{itemize}
There will be a homework assignment.
\item {\bf Introduction to statistical methods} (Harrison Prosper)\\
To introduce students to some of the basic ideas and methods
of "classical" and "modern" (read Bayesian) statistics. I
plan to use real examples from the physics literature.
(Necessarily, this will come from areas with which I am
most familiar.) I shall avoid using the Gaussian
distribution in my examples so that certain ideas remain
distinct - e.g., standard deviation and confidence interval.
My aim is to provide the student with a firm grounding in
useful statistical ideas.\\
Topics or concepts to be discussed:
\begin{itemize}
\item {\sl Basic notions:}
\begin{itemize}
\item decision function, estimator, loss and risk functions (in
particular, the mean squared error)
\item bias, variance, efficiency of an estimator, consistency
\item covariance, correlation, and independence
\end{itemize}
\item {\sl Classical statistics:}
\begin{itemize}
\item The method of maximum likelihood; the method of moments; sampling
theory. Use as an example: estimating the mean lifetime of an
exponentially decaying system. Also measuring the top quark mass
using the method of moments.
\item confidence intervals (both for continuous and discrete
distributions). (In spite of the lore to the contrary a
confidence interval does have a precise meaning. I hope to get
that message across to the students, especially those who wish to
do experiments.) Use the Poisson distribution as an example.
\item approximate methods, the likelihood ratio and its relationship to
the $\chi^2$-distribution. What to do about unphysical
regions: use them, or lose them?
\item fitting: $\chi^2$ method, likelihood method; goodness-of-fit
tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cram\'er-Smirnov-Von Mises)
\end{itemize}
\item {\sl Bayesian statistics:}
\begin{itemize}
\item Bayes' theorem
\item hypothesis testing using bayesian probability
\item parameter estimation
\item confidence intervals
\item treating systematic errors and uncertainty
\item unfolding spectra
\item connection to neural networks
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\item {\bf Magnetometry} (Stephan von Moln\'{a}r)\\
Topics:
\begin{itemize}
\item overview of magnetometers\\
\tab a). Induction methods\\
\tab b). Force methods\\
\tab c). Vibrating sample magnetometer\\
\tab d). SQUID magnetometer\\
\tab e). Torque magnetometer
\item Novel techniques for special purposes\\
\tab a). Hall gradiometer\\
\tab b). Cantilever magnetometer
\end{itemize}
There will be a lab which will involve the observation of preparation and
mounting of a magnetic sample onto the sample holder of a
commercial SQUID magnetometer. The data, which will be collected
automatically by the SQUID as data points of magnetization vs.
temperature and field, will then need to be analyzed by each
student. This will permit the student to become familiar with:\\
\tab a). various methods of plotting magnetic data to extract
significant constants \\
\tab b). experimentally defining a second order phase transition.\\
\item {\bf Accelerators} (Horst Wahl)\\
The goal is to acquaint the student with basic concepts of the physics of accelerators
used in nuclear and particle physics.\\
Subjects to be covered:\\
\tab Overview of accelerator types\\
\tab beam manipulating elements\\
\tab beam acceptance, emittance\\
\tab betatron motion\\
\tab lattice functions, tune\\
\tab phase stability\\
\tab synchrotron radiation\\
\tab luminosity\\
\tab beam cooling\\
\tab representative examples of accelerators\\
There is no laboratory accompanying this section of the course,
but there is homework.
\item {\bf Particle detection techniques} (Horst Wahl)\\
Subjects to be covered:\\
\tab Interaction of particles with matter\\
\tab \tab cross section, survival probability, free pathlength..\\
\tab \tab energy loss of heavy particles, electrons\\
\tab \tab electromagnetic interactions, strong interactions\\
\tab \tab interactions of photons\\
\tab \tab bremsstrahlung, pair production, electromagnetic showers\\
\tab \tab Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation\\
\tab detector characteristics
(sensitivity, response, efficiency, deadtime..)\\ \\
\tab gas detectors (ionization chambers, prop. counters, wirechambers,\\
\tab \tab drift chambers,..) \\
\tab calorimeters \\
\tab semiconductor detectors \\
\tab Cherenkov counters \\
\tab scintillators, scintillating fibers \\
\tab detector systems \\
\tab typical experiments in particle physics \\
\end{itemize}
\medskip
\subsection*{Lecturers:}
\begin{center}
{\noindent \begin{tabular}{lllll} \hline
Lecturer & office & phone & e-mail & office hrs\\ \hline
Zachary Fisk & 409 Keen & 644-2922 & fisk@magnet.fsu.edu & Mo 09:00 - 10:00\\
& & & & We 09:00 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
John D. Fox & 217 Keen & 644-2066 & fox@mail.phy.ornl.gov & Tu 14:00 -
15:30\\
& & & & Th 14:00 - 15:30 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
David Lind & 412 Keen & 644-1576 & lind@magnet.fsu.edu & Mo 09:00 - 10:00\\
& & & & We 09:00 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
Ed Myers & 115 NRB & 644-4040 & myers@nucmar.fsu.edu & Mo 09:00 - 10:00\\
& & & & We 09:00 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
Harrison Prosper & 514 Keen & 644-6760 & harry@hep.fsu.edu & Tu 09:00 - 10:00\\
& & & & Th 09:00 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
Stephan von Molnar & 406 Keen & 644-5075 & molnar@magnet.fsu.edu & Mo 09:00 - 10:00\\
& & & & We 09:00 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
Horst D. Wahl & 512 Keen & 644-3509 & wahl@hep.fsu.edu & Mo 08:30 - 10:00\\
& & & & We 08:30 - 10:00 \\
& & & & or by appt. \\ \hline
\hline
\end{tabular}}
\end{center}
\newpage
\subsection*{Course grading}
There will be no exams in this course, only graded homework assignments and lab.
exercises, as well as presentations and papers on subjects chosen by the
students
The course grade will be calculated using the sum of normalized grades from
the homework, lab. assignments, presentation and paper, normalized to a
total of 100 points.
The following table contains the range in number of points (for 100 points maximum) necessary
to achieve a given letter grade:
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|} \hline
grade & points \\ \hline
A& $\ge 75$ \\
B& $ < 75, ~\ge 50 $ \\
C& $< 50$ \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
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%\centerline{{\bf PHYSICS 5846 SYLLABUS \hfill FALL 1998}}
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{\bf CLASS SCHEDULE}\\
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\begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|c|} \hline
Week &Dates & Subject & Assignment \\
No. &Tu - Th & {\sl Lecturer} & \\ \hline
1 &25 Aug. & Organizational meeting & \\ \hline
2 &1 Sep. & Statistical methods & homework \\
& &{\sl Harrison Prosper} & \\ \hline
2 &3 Sep. & Accelerators (1) & homework \\
& &{\sl Horst Wahl} & \\ \hline
3 &8 Sep. & Statistics cont'd & homework \\
&10 Sep. &{\sl Harrison Prosper} & \\ \hline
4 &15 Sep. &Statistics (cont'd)& \\
&17 Sep. &{\sl Harrison Prosper}& \\ \hline
5 &22 Sep. &Magnetometry& lab.\\
&24 Sep. &{\sl Stephan von Moln\'ar}& \\ \hline
6 &29 Sep. &Lasers& lab. and \\
&1 Oct. &{\sl Ed Myers}&homework \\ \hline
7 &6 Oct. &Beam sources& lab. and\\
&8 Oct. &{\sl Ed Myers}& homework\\ \hline
8 &13 Oct. &Sample preparation& \\
&15 Oct. &{\sl Zach Fisk}& \\ \hline
9 &20 Oct. &Crystallography (1) & homework\\
&22 Oct. &{\sl David Lind}& \\ \hline
10 &27 Oct. &Crystallography (2) & lab.\\
&29 Oct. &{\sl David Lind}& \\ \hline
11 &3 Nov. &Accelerators (2) & \\
& &{\sl Horst Wahl} & \\
& 5 Nov.&Particle detection (1) &homework \\
& &{\sl Horst Wahl} & \\ \hline
12 &10 Nov. &Spallation neutron source& \\
&12 Nov. &{\sl John Fox}&reading ass.\\ \hline
13 &17 Nov. &radiaoactive ion beams& \\
&19 Nov. &{\sl John Fox}&reading ass.\\ \hline
14 &24 Nov. &Particle detection (2)& \\
& &{\sl Horst Wahl} & \\
&26 Nov. &Thanksgiving & \\ \hline
15 &1 Dec. &Student presentations& \\
&3 Dec. &Student presentations& \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
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